are adolescents selected to participate in this study?
survey adolescents from participating high schools in Southern
California. These 9th graders consist of two groups, students
who are in the 9th grade during Fall of 2002, and students
who are in the 9th grade in Fall of 2003. We will then give
follow-up surveys to these same students again during 10th
and 11th grades. Students from all ethnic and cultural backgrounds
will be included in the adolescent survey portion of the study.
are parents selected to participate in this study?
parent telephone interviews, only parents of Chinese-, Filipino-,
Korean-, and European-American adolescents who report that
both of their parents are of the same ethnic ancestry will
be included. From the adolescents who identified themselves
as being of Chinese, Filipino, Korean or European ancestry,
one parent of each adolescent will be asked to participate.
From the group of parents who complete the telephone surveys,
we will recruit a group of parents and adolescents to participate
in the qualitative interviews.
do I participate?
of all 9th graders will be mailed consent forms requesting
their teenager’s participation in our study. These consent
letters will also include the date that the survey will be
given in the classroom. In order to correct for potential
biases in the sample due to use of active consent, passive
consent procedures will be used. Passive consent means that
parents send back the forms only if they do not wish their
child to participate. So, if you want to allow your child
to participate, DO NOT return the denied consent letter to
us. Previous research has shown that high functioning families
are over-represented in samples when active consent is used
due to the requirement placed upon parents for returning the
forms. In order to assure that parents understand the nature
and goals of the study, translated versions (in Chinese, Korean,
and Spanish) of the letters will also be sent to parents along
with the English version.
students can decide whether to complete the survey in class
on the day we give the survey. For students who missed the
survey for any reason, and would like to take it, you may
contact Inna Padmawidjaja at 909-787-4725 or
email@example.com, survey and she will then mail
you a postage paid reply envelope (as long as you have parent
permission). In addition, if you move, please e-mail us your
new address and phone number so you can continue to be in
the study. Because this study looks at changes throughout
the high school years, it is very important for students to
continue to participate in the survey for all three years.
interviews are a very important component of our study! It
is critical to understand how parent beliefs and goals are
linked to parenting practices and adolescent success and well-being.
Parents of Chinese, Filipino, Korean or European ancestry
will be contacted on the phone by our trained interviewers
and invited to participate. Participation is voluntary. Parents
will be interviewed over the telephone once a year for the
three years (when adolescents are in the 9th, 10th, and 11th
grades). The interviews will be conducted in the parent’s
language of choice (either English, Mandarin, Cantonese, or
Korean). We greatly appreciate and encourage parent participation.
Because this study looks at changes over time, it is also
important for parents to continue to participate throughout
the study. All parents who choose to participate will be given
an honorarium each year in appreciation for their time and
help with our study.
interview is one of the strengths of this study in that it
allows parents and adolescents the opportunity to explain
the way their family works in their own words. Parents and
adolescents will be recruited to participate in the qualitative
interview from the group of parents who participate in the
long does it take to complete the adolescent survey?
can be finished during one class period. It takes about 35-45
minutes to complete.
long does it take to complete the parent telephone interview?
The telephone survey will take about 30 minutes to complete.
long does it take to complete the qualitative interview and
where will they be conducted?
The qualitative interview will take about 45-60 minutes to
complete. The interviews will be taken place in the home or
in wherever else the adolescents and parents prefer (e.g.,
our research lab).
do we need to study this research question?
will provide a thorough appreciation of how family processes
influence the school performance and adjustment of adolescents
through an understanding of how these processes are part of
a larger cultural context. It is important to understand the
meaning and impact of parenting practices in light of culturally
influenced parenting beliefs and goals. Not only have the
findings for the effects of parenting on adolescent outcomes
with Asian Americans not been consistent with what has been
found with European Americans, these effects have also been
quite inconsistent with across studies. As a resolution to
this paradox, Dr. Chao has demonstrated that parenting has
different meanings for Asian Americans, specifically Chinese
immigrants, than for European Americans (Chao, 1994). The
purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine how the meaning
of parenting differs for these two groups by analyzing distinctions
in adolescents' and parents' scripts for parenting (their
interpretation of parenting) and in parents' beliefs systems
and folk theories of parenting. This will improve our understanding
of cultural similarities and differences in the ways that
parenting practices are related to adolescent outcomes for
Asian immigrant and European American families. Families like
your own can then use this information in the future.
can I learn about the progress and results of this study?
As our lab answers the questions we are asking in the Multicultural
Families and Adolescents Study, we will write and publish
journal articles, posters, and other literature describing
our results. We will also post these papers and reports on
our web site for everyone to read. We will publish the results
for the Southern California area as a whole, not for specific
schools or individuals. Once it is published, the information
from this study can be used to improve our understanding and
support of culturally diverse families and also to inform
future research in this area. Because this is a longitudinal
study that takes place over five years, and we are collecting
a substantial amount of information, it will take time to
complete the study and present the results. If you have questions
in the mean time, please feel free to contact us. In addition,
we will use newsletters to communicate with participating
families about the progress of our study.